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Understanding Transistors, Functions, Types, Symbols

What is Transistor? How they Work?

Understanding Transistors, Functions, Types, Symbols and How they Work - Transistors were first discovered in 1947. Since then, technological changes have been very significant. The beginning of the transistor is the beginning of modern technological civilization.



Understanding Transistors, Functions, Types, Symbols
This image is taken from DigiKey.com and transistors owned by Microsemi Corporation, Diodes Incorporated, Nexperia USA Inc and ON Semiconductor.

Transistors change electrical equipment that previously used cathode tubes with large sizes into very small and inexpensive sizes.

The inventor of the transistor was William Shockley, John Barden and Walter Brattain.

Transistor Function

Transistor is one of the electronic components that can function as a switch and amplifier.

The switch referred to here is a switch that is controlled by electricity and the reinforcement in question is the amplification of the input signal, so that the output signal becomes larger.

Signal amplification can be in the form of voltage amplification or current amplification. Examples of signal amplifiers such as satellite TV signals that are captured by very small receivers are then amplified so that the signal can be used by us.

Transistor Types and Working Principle

There are two large families of transistors, BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) and FET (Field Effect Transistor).

The difference between the working principle of BJT and FET is:
  • The BJT will actively operate if a current is applied to the Base.
  • The FET will actively operate if a voltage is applied to the Gate.

There are two types of BJT transistors:
  • NPN (Negative Positive Negative)
  • PNP (Positive Negative Positive)

There are two types of FET transistors:
  • N-Channel
  • P-Channel
The FET transistor has its derivatives:
  • D-MOSFET (Depletion - Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET)
  • E-MOSFET (Enhancement - Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET)
  • UJT (Unijunction FET)
MOSFET transistors, both Depletion and Enhancement types, have two types:
  • N-Channel
  • P-Channel
Unijunction FET transistors also have two types, namely:
  • N-Channel
  • P-Channel


Symbol of Transistor

We have seen the types of transistors above. Each type has a symbol. These symbols are used mainly in circuit schematics.

transistor symbol
Simbol Transistor

How Transistors Work?

BJT, FET, D-MOSFET, E-MOSFET and UJT transistors have different ways of working and characteristics. Therefore, we will share an explanation of each of the working principles of the transistor.
  1. How BJT Transistors Work (not written yet)
  2. How FET Transistors Work (not written yet)
  3. How the D-MOSFET Transistor Works (not written yet)
  4. How the E-MOSFET Transistor Works (not written yet)
  5. How the UJT Transistor Works (not written yet)

Book reference sources:

(please buy and study the following original books for more details):
1. Electronics Fundamentals. Circuits, Devices and Applications. Thomas L. Floyd.
2. Practical Electronics for Inventors. Paul Scherz & Simon Monk.
3. The Art Of Electronics. Paul Horowitz & Winfield Hill.
#tags:tr pnp, transistor smd.

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