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Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)- Every electronic device today, generally uses a PCB to connect one component to another without having to use cables. To use and how to choose of PCB type varies depending on the use of the equipment. PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is a thin board that contains a circuit path of copper to connect electronic components.

 

What are the PCBs (Printed circuit board) and Types

PCB Function

Component Connector

This is the main function of the PCB. Where used to connect one component to another using a cable. You can see on television or radio made before the 1960s.

Micro Strip Antenna

One of the functions of a PCB is to create a micro strip antenna that can be formed using a Rigid PCB or a Flex PCB. This antenna strip can be seen on wireless devices, one of which is a smartphone.

 

PCB Type

PCB Type Based on Construction

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types
Rigid-Flex PCB

1. Rigid PCB

Rigid PCB means PCB that has a hard physical posture. This is the most common physical of frequently used PCBs.

2. Flexible PCB

As the name suggests, flexible PCB is a form of flexible PCB. It is made of a thin film polymer material in which there is a copper strip.

3. Rigid Flex PCB

Rigid Flex PCB is a combination of Rigid and Flexibel PCBs.

 

PCB Type By Path Layer

1. Single Layer (Single Side)

Single Layer PCB is a PCB that has only one layer of copper to be used as a circuit path. Look at the  following picture:

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types

This type is often used for equipment that has a simple circuit design and low production costs. Single Layer PCB is widely applied to equipment that uses THT components and high power.

Examples of applications such as:

 

  • Power Amplifier
  • Tube television
  • FM/AM/SW radio 
  • Power Supply
  • Relays for Industry and Automotive
  • Sensor Equipment
  •  LED Lighting
  • etc

 

Advantages of Single Layer PCB:

 

  • Simple circuit design
  • Low production process error
  • Many single layer printing service providers

 

 

2. Dual Layer (Double Side)

Dual Layer PCB is a PCB that only has 2 copper lines (top and bottom) used for circuit paths. This makes it possible to connect components from one side to the other side and saves component laying and design space.

Look at the following picture:

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types

This type is often used for equipment that uses a lot of SMD components or a combination of ENT and SMD components.

Examples of applications such as:

 

  • Low power supply
  • Low power relay circuit
  • LCD Television
  • Printer
  • Monitor
  • Class D . Amplifier
  • Instrumentation Equipment
  • etc

 

Advantages of Dual Layer PCB:

 

  • More complex circuits but can be embedded into smaller PCB sizes
  • Lower production costs

 

 

3. Multi-Layer

Multi-Layer PCB is a PCB that has many copper paths in one PCB which are separated based on certain layers. The construction of multi-layer PCBs is slightly different from single and dual layer, because on multi-layer PCBs there is an additional dielectric material called Prepeg.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Explanation and Types

Multi-layer is not specific to a certain layer, but the number of layers is above 2. For example, in 1 PCB there are 6 copper layers and this condition is called 6 layers.

Generally, the sizes of multi-layer PCBs that are often produced are 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 to 20 layers. One PCB company that is able to produce PCBs up to 20 layers is PCBcart.

 

PCB Type Based on Materials and Technology

1. FR-2 (Pertinax)

Pertinax material is the most common material in PCB manufacturing. The base material is paper-phenolic and is often called Pertinax.

PCBs that use pertinax as basic materials are very widely used for beginners in the manufacture of electronic equipment because of their low price.

But besides the low price, the quality of this type of PCB is below that of other types. Because of this, some PCB printing companies do not use this type in their manufacturing process.

Generally, Pertinak's basic dielectric material is dark brown. To see photos of the Pertinax PCB, click here.

Examples of Pertinak PCB applications:

 

  • Tool Prototype (Vocational High School students, College Students or bi electronics)
  • Active Amplifier
  • Digital TV (Old)
  • and outdated electronic equipment

 

 

2. FR-4 (Fiber)

FR-4 is a PCB based on a mixture of Fiber and flame retardant epoxy resin. The word "FR" stands for "Flame Retardant".

Generally, FR-4 material is the most basic material used by PCB printer manufacturers.

There are at least three types of FR-4 material transition temperatures used by PCB printing manufacturers, namely:

 

  • TG 130-140°C
  • TG 150-160°C
  • TG 170-180°C

 

Generally, the FR-4 PCB material has a thickness of:

 

  • Board thickness from 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3.0 to 3.2mm
  • Copper thickness 0.0347 mm (1 oz) to 0.4511 mm (13 oz)

 

Compared to Pertinax materials, FR-4 has a higher temperature resistance capability, so that copper and boards are not easily damaged when exposed to high temperature solder.

FR-4 PCB Application is almost all electronic equipment today uses this type of FR-4 material.

 

3. Aluminum PCB

Aluminum PCB is a PCB with a core made of Aluminum. This type is often used for lighting that uses LEDs. For example, in energy-saving lamps that use LEDs.

The brighter the LED, the higher the heat. The use of aluminum as a PCB core will be able to dissipate heat from the LED, so the LED is not easily damaged.

 

4. HDI PCB

HDI (High Density Interconnect) is a PCB manufacturing technology that uses micro technology to print very small circuit lines.

Understanding PCB (Printed Circuit Board), Functions and Types

The main goal of HDI is to streamline the PCB size with maximum components.

The technology used in the DHI PCB process depends on the PCB checking company.

From several pcb manufacturing companies, we collect minimum value of hdi pcb are:

 

  • Minimum Via size 0.0508 mm
  • Minimum 4 layers
  • Minimum board thickness 0.4 mm
  • Minimum copper thickness 0.01735 mm
  • Minimum distance between lanes is at least 0.0254mm
  • For drilling holes with a minimum diameter of 0.1016mm
  • For annual ring minimum 0.0762mm

 

 

Examples of HDI PCB applications are:

 

  • Smartphone
  • Laptops
  • RAM memory
  • Hard disk
  • Solid State Disk
  •  etc

 

 

5. Roger PCB

Roger PCB is a special PCB material manufactured by Rogers Corp.

 

Video PCB Explanation

If you still don't understand about PCB, I have a good video explanation from youtube, watch this video

 

Hopefully this article is useful.

Sources: PCBWAY, PCBCart, 7PCB, Sierra Circuit, Smart Prototyping, PCB Universe, FinsDesign, WikiPedia,

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