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Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation

Earthquake Seismograph

Earthquake Seismograph for Earthquake Instrumentation - This article is a summary of my practical work at BMKG Banda Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The practical work I did on February 15 - March 15, 2015, gave me a little understanding of earthquake measurements. Earthquake Seismograph Writing As an Earthquake Instrumentation, I hope that it can add to our insight into earthquake measurement tools.
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 1. Seismic Waves
 
 

Let's start from the Aceh provincial boundary. The province of Aceh is an area located between 2º - 6º NL and 95º - 98º East. The westernmost area of Indonesia is surrounded by territorial boundaries, namely the north bordering the Malacca Strait, the southern part bordering North Sumatra, the east bordering the Malacca Strait, and the west bordering the Indonesian Sea.

 

Aceh is an area that experienced the worst earthquake in 2004 accompanied by a tsunami. The resulting strength reached 9.3 on the Ricther scale, which killed at least 250,000 people in countries in Asia and Africa. This happened due to the fault of the Sumatra fault that stretched from the Andaman Sea to South Sumatra. Aceh is located on the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian Plate and on the Mediterranean circum (Mulyatno, 2008).

 

The Indonesian archipelago is located between 6º NL to 11º E and 95º E to 141º E. Indonesia is located between two oceans and continents namely the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and the Continent of Asia and Australia. 

 

Indonesia is a meeting area of ​​3 large tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate. The Indo-Australian Plate collides with the Eurasian plate off the coast of Sumatra, Java and Nusatenggara, while with the Pacific in northern Irian and northern Maluku.

 

Around the location of this plate meeting the accumulation of collision energy is collected to a point where the earth's layer is no longer able to hold the pile of energy so that it releases in the form of an earthquake (Erstayudha, 2009). 

 

To be able to record and measure ground vibrations due to the earthquake continuously, so that the time of the earthquake, as well as knowing the strength of the earthquake and the location of the earthquake can be used an instrument that is Earthquake Seismograph.

 

 

General History of BMKG (BADAN METEOROLOGI, KLIMATOLOGI, DAN GEOFISIKA)

The history of meteorological and geophysical observations in Indonesia began in 1841 beginning with observations made individually by Dr. Onnen, Head of the Hospital in Bogor. Year by year its activities are developing in accordance with the increasing need for data from weather and geophysical observations. 
 
In 1866, the individual observation activity by the Netherlands Indies Government was formalized as a government agency under the name Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatory or the Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory led by Dr. Bergsma.

 

 

In 1879 a total of 74 observation stations were built on the rain gauge. In 1902 observations of the earth's magnetic field were moved from Jakarta to Bogor. Earthquake observation began in 1908 with the installation of a horizontal component of the Wiechert Earthquake Seismograph in Jakarta, while the installation of a vertical component was carried out in 1928. In 1912 a reorganization of meteorological observations was made by adding a secondary network. While meteorological services began to be used for lighting in 1930.

 

During the Japanese occupation between 1942 and 1945, the name of the meteorology and geophysics agency was changed to Kisho Kauso Kusho. After the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945, the agency was split into two: In Yogyakarta a Meteorological Bureau was formed within the Supreme Headquarters of the Indonesian People's Army specifically to serve the interests of the Air Force. 

In Jakarta the Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics was formed, under the Ministry of Public Works and Energy. On July 21, 1947 the Meteorology and Geophysics Service was taken over by the Dutch Government and its name was changed to Meteorologisch en Geofisiche Dienst. 

 

Meanwhile, there is also the Meteorology and Geophysics Office maintained by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, the agency's position on Jl. Gondangdia, Jakarta.

 

In 1949, after the surrender of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia from the Netherlands, Meteorologisch en Geofisiche Dienst was changed to the Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics under the Ministry of Transportation and Public Works. 

 

Furthermore, in 1950 Indonesia officially entered as a member of the World Meteorological Organization (World Meteorological Organization or WMO) and the Head of the Meteorology and Geophysics Office became the Permanent Representative of Indonesia with WMO. 

 

In 1955 the Meteorology and Geophysics Service was renamed the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency under the Department of Transportation, and in 1960 it was renamed the Meteorology and Geophysics Office under the Department of Air Transportation.

 

In 1965, the name was changed to the Directorate of Meteorology and Geophysics, his position remained under the Department of Air Transportation. In 1972, the Directorate of Meteorology and Geophysics was renamed the Center for Meteorology and Geophysics, an echelon II institution under the Department of Transportation, and in 1980 its status was upgraded to an echelon I-level agency under the name Meteorology and Geophysics, with a permanent position in the under the Department of Transportation. 

 

In 2002, with Presidential Decree No. 46 and 48 of 2002, the organizational structure was changed to Non-Departmental Government Institutions (LPND) with the permanent name Meteorology and Geophysics Agency. Finally, through Presidential Regulation No. 61/2008, the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency was renamed the Badan Meteoroloi, Klimatologi and Geofisika (BMKG) with permanent status as Non-Departmental Government Institutions. On October 1, 2009 Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 31 of 2009 concerning Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics was ratified by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

 

History of BMKG Banda Aceh

The Banda Aceh Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency was established on 1979 which is located in the Mata Ie area, Darul Imarah sub-district, Aceh Besar. The Ie Banda Aceh Geophysics Station is one of the agencies within the Department of Transportation and is a Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) responsible to the head of the BMG Meteorology and Geophysics Agency which is a government agency whose task is one of which is to monitor earthquake and potential natural events the tsunami. The geophysical station Mata Ie is located at Latitude 05º 29 ’16.6" LU with Longitude 95º 17 "44.5" East.

 

 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 2. Banda Aceh BMKG Office
 
 
 

Earthquake Causes

An earthquake is the shake of the earth caused by the sudden release of energy from the earth's crust. This energy comes from different sources, such as the breakdown or collision of the earth's crust, volcanic eruptions, and events created by humans such as explosions or hollow underground debris, such as mining. Earthquake events can be explained by the theory of tectonic scale enlargement processes, also said tectonic layers. 
 
The layer is in the form of a large sheet of rigid rock that is stable with a thickness of about 100 km that moves together, forming a crust, also called the lithosphere layer and part of the upper mantle of the earth. The earth's crust is the outermost part of the earth's rock layer with a complex internal geological structure and non-uniform thickness of 25-60 km under the continent and 4-6 km below the ocean.
 
In general, oceanic plates will infiltrate under continental plates, this is due to oceanic plates having a greater density than continental plates. If the stress has become so great that it exceeds the strength of the earth's crust, there will be a break in the earth's crust in the weakest area. The broken earth skin will release energy or voltage partially or completely to return to its original state. This event of energy release is called an earthquake.
 
Earthquakes occur along boundaries or associate with tectonic plate boundaries. In fact the relative movement of the plates goes very slowly, almost equal to the speed of human nail growth (0-20 cm per year). This results in friction at the plate meeting, which causes energy to accumulate before an earthquake occurs. Earthquake strength varies from place to place as time changes.
 
In Indonesia, the location of earthquake sources originated from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, some turning north on Sulawesi, then from Nusa Tenggara some continuing east of Maluku and Irian. Only the island of Kalimantan has relatively no source of earthquake except a little east. The following figure is the boundary of tectonic plates that pass through Indonesia and are associated with earthquake sources.

1. Earthquake Source

The main cause of earthquakes is the movement of tectonic plates. If the plate moves, then around the plate boundary there will be a collection of energy, and if the rock layer has been unable to hold it, the energy will be released which causes a fault or deformation in the layer of the earth's crust and there is a tectonic earthquake. Besides that, due to the movement of the plates there was a fault (fault) in the upper layer of the earth's crust which is the second generator of tectonic earthquakes.
Figure 3. Tectonic Plate Globe
 
 
There are 3 main tectonic plates and 1 small tectonic plate. The three main plates are the Indo-Australian, Eurasian, and Pacific plates, whereas the small plate is the Philippine plate.
 

2. Earthquake Parameters

To be able to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, there are several parameters used, namely:
- Origin Time:
Origin Time is the time an earthquake occurs at its source in the earth.
- Epicenter [Latitude and Longitude]
A point or line on the surface of the earth that is perpendicular to the hypocenter.
- Hypocenter [Depth (h)]
The source or place of tectonic, volcanic or ruins causing earthquakes.
- Magnitude [Strength]

Magnitude is an earthquake parameter that is measured based on what happened in a certain area, due to earthquake shocks.

  • The earthquake was very large with a magnitude greater than 8 SR.
  • Large magnitude earthquake between 7 to 8 SR.
  • The earthquake damaged the magnitude between 5 and 6 SR.
  • The earthquake was magnitude between 4 to 5 SR.
  • Small earthquake with a magnitude of 3 to 4 SR.
  • Micro magnitude earthquake between 1 to 3 SR.
  • An ultra micro earthquake with a magnitude smaller than 1 SR.

 

The level of damage that is felt at the location. This scale called MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity) was introduced by Giuseppe Mercalli in 1902.

3. Seismic Waves

Seismic waves are energy propagation from the hypocentric (epicenter) to other places on earth. There are two waves produced, namely body wave (P) and surface wave (S). Primary waves are waves which are the direction of movement or vibration of medium particles in the direction of the wave propagation. 
 
This wave has the greatest propagation speed among other seismic waves. Secondary waves are waves whose direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. These waves can only propagate in solid material only and have a smaller wave velocity than the primary wave.
 

4. Earthquake Strength Measurement

Measurement of earthquake strength using two methods, namely the Richter Scale and Mercalli Scale. The Richter scale is a measure of the size of an earthquake's strength, named after an American earthquake expert and physicist. is defined as the logarithm of the maximum amplitude measured in micrometers (um) from earthquake recordings by Wood-Anderson seismometer, at a distance of 100 km from the epicenter. The Mercalli scale is a unit for measuring the strength of earthquakes created by volcanologists from Italy named Giuseppe Mercalli in 1902.

5. Earthquake Classification

a. Tectonic earthquake
Tekntonik earthquake is an earthquake that occurs from the movement of plates or the earth's crust.
b. Volcanic Earthquake
Volcanic earthquake is an earthquake caused by the movement or activity of magma in a volcano.
c. Earthquake Collapse
The earthquake or the earthquake is an earthquake that occurs because of the collapse of the soil or rocks
d. Falling Earthquake
A fall earthquake is an earthquake that occurs as a result of a meteor or rock falling to earth. This falling meteor will cause earth vibrations if the meteor mass is large enough.
f. Artificial Earthquake
An artificial earthquake is an earthquake that occurs due to human activities such as underground or sea nuclear detonation experiments which can cause earth vibrations
 

6. Seismograph

What is a Earthquake Seismograph? Earthquake Seismograph are instruments that can record vibrations from the earth. seismograph equipment a combination of seismometer and seismogram.
Figure 5. Seismograph (Wikipedia)
 
 
Seismometer is a sensitive instrument or also called a sensor that can detect the emission of waves from an earthquake vibration state.
 
Figure 6. Seismometer (Kinemetrics)
 
 
 
A seismogram is a recording sheet consisting of recording paper or images from a computer in which there is data that is useful for calculating the location and magnitude of an earthquake.
Figure 7. Seismogram (media.npr.org)
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph were first introduced in 132 BC by mathematicians from the Han Dynasty named Zhang Heng, seismograph china. This is based on the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in the capital city of Luoyang and the surrounding area. Based on history books, there have been 30 earthquakes in 50 years, from 89 to 140.
Figure 8. Seismograf (china.org.cn)


7. Seismogram Analysis

Earthquake analysis is carried out on seismogram paper. Measurement is determined by several parameters, namely the determination of primary waves, secondary waves, maximum amplitude, wavelength, magnitude.

a. Determination of primary waves

Primary waves are the first waves detected.
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 9. P Waves
 
 
 

b. Secondary wave determination

Secondary waves seen from the end (shrinking) of the P wave and then suddenly increase dramatically. From this drastic increase in the S Wave point measurement point
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 10. S Waves
 
 
 

c. Determine the maximum amplitude

This maximum amplitude is the height of the wave when measured from the reference point (midpoint).
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 11. Maximum Amplitude
 
 
 

d. Determination of wavelength (duration)

Determination of wavelengths starting from the beginning of the vibrations that produce P waves to the end of vibrations that occur in the S wave.
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 12. Earthquake Duration
 
 
 

e. Wave magnitude (earthquake strength)

Showing the magnitude / strength of an earthquake can use the formula used by BMKG stations, namely:
 

Principles of Analog earthquake seismograph machine

The working principle of a Earthquake Seismograph is that if a seismometer detects a vibration, the seismometer will send a signal to an amplifier to amplify the signal. The signal will be amplified by 56,000 times the initial signal. 
 
After that, the signal will be given to a drum recorder device. Inside the drum recorder there are additional electronic devices that can regulate the movement of the recording needle, and the rotation speed of the drum. The diagram blog can be seen in Figure 13.
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 13 Analog Seismograph Block Diagram
 
 
 

1. Seismometer Ranger SS-1

Seismometer Ranger SS-1 is a production of the company KINEMETRICS Inc., which is one of the sensor components for Earthquake Seismograph instruments located in the Banda Aceh Climatology and Geophysics Meteorology Agency. The following physical form of the Ranger SS-1.
Seismometer Ranger SS-1 Kinemetrics
Figure 14 Seismometer Ranger SS-1
 
 
 

Seismometer SS-1 Ranger works on the basis of a "moving coil" to produce electricity based on electromagnetic fields. The construction of the Ranger SS-1 can be seen in figure 15. Inside the seismometer there are Spring Hanger Rods, Suspension Spring, Flexure, Output Coil, Mass (moving magnet), Period Extending Magnet, and Calibration Coil ... Spring Hanger Rod and Suspension Spring are useful for control the mass when used in a vertical or horizontal plane. Flexure is useful as an adhesive field for the masses. Coil output is useful as a source of voltage in case of vibrations in the SS ranger 1.

At the output coil there is a Rg resistance coil generator, which is the resistance of the generator coil (coil signal) with Ohms units. The value of this resistance is 5000 Ohms. Mass is a permanent magnet that can move. 

The Exteding Magnet Period is useful for expanding the magnetic field to produce a timing. Calibration Coil is used for the calibration process. Calibration functions as a normal determination of the tool's work to show the correct value when measuring. This calibration coil has a resistance of 100Ohm.

Ranger SS-1 is a "spring-mass" instrument with electromagnetic transduction. Permanent magnets are made as seismic "mass" (figure 16) and the output coil as a transducer is attached to a frame or seismometer body (figure 17). The mass is supported by two circular flex, located at the top and bottom which functions as a buffer for the mass (figure 18). A calibration coil is shown in figure 19.

 
Ranger SS-1 Kinemetrics Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 15. Ranger SS-1 Construction
 
 
 
Kinemetrics Ranger SS 1 Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 16. Mass
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 17. Transduser coil
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 18. Flex
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 19. Calibration Coils
 
 
 
When the seismometer detects a vibration, the mass supported by flex will move perpendicular to the output coil. As a result of the movement by the mass, so that it will cause an electromagnetic field at the output coil. Due to the electromagnetic arising, it produces a voltage at the output coil. 
 
The relationship between the constant speed from mass to the output coil that can produce this voltage is called the Constant Generator. Ranger SS-1 has a constant generator that is 340V / ms. This shows that if the mass moves a distance of one meter in one second, the output coil will produce a voltage of 340V. 
 
But in reality, the mass only moves within a range of ± 1 mm so that the resulting voltage is very small, ranging from nanovolts to millivolts. The voltage generated by the output coil will be supplied to the Amplifier that looks like in Figure 4.8 through the MS 3106E-14S-5S connector. The amplifier will amplify the voltage by 56,000 times.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 20. Amplifier (red)
 
 
 
 
 
Chip Piko
Figure 21. MS3106E-14S-5S connector (globelink & PEI genesis)
 
 
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 22. Configuring the Connector PIN


In Figure 21, shows a 5 pin configuration with the following functions:
Pin A and B = Output Coil
Pin D and E = calibration coil
Pin C = Grounding Casing based on the datasheet, the determination of the polarity of the installation is as follows:
The voltage on pin A is positive with respect to pin B.
When a positive voltage is applied to pin E against pin D, mass moves down which results in a positive voltage on pin A.
 

2. Recorder

To be able to record earthquake events, an analog recorder is used that represents one sensor. There are three recorders used, namely horizontal to record the direction of East-West (EW) and North-South (NS), and one mounted vertically to record the direction of Up-Down (UD).
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 23. Analog Recorder
 
 
 
Each single recorder has some of the same devices, namely a drum, seismogram paper as a data writing medium, as well as several settings namely strengthening, position, drum rotational speed, and recording time. 
 
The recorder basically records earthquake activity on Earthquake Seismograph paper glued to a drum that is rotated at a certain speed using a pen that moves parallel to the drum continuously for the whole amount of recording. The duration of recording in a drum is 24 hours. The time markers on the seismogram sheet are marked with a break every minute.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 24. Timing in 1 minute / 60 seconds
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 25. Timing in 15 minutes / 900 seconds
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 26. Timing in 24 hours
 
 
 
Figure 4.12 is the recording timing on the seismogram sheet. Timing is limited to once every minute. Recording each line within 15 minutes. The duration of recording is influenced by the rotation of the stepper motor which drives the drum recorder and pen. The motor used is a 12Volt stepper motor with 1/6 RPM.
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 27. Stepper motor on the recorder
 
 
 
There are two motors that are used, namely for transferring the position of the pen (left) and drum rotation (right).
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 28. Two stepper motors used
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 29. View of the recording pen
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 30. Back view of a recording pen
 
 
 
The speed of the two motors can be adjusted by changing the position of the selector at the bottom of the drum recorder. In figure 4.19 there are two selectors, each of which has a different function. Drum speed is used to adjust the rotation speed of the drum. The current setting is 60mm / min. 
 
This states that the 60mm length of recording takes 1 minute or 60 seconds, can be seen in Figure 4.12. It also means that within 1 mm the time required is 1 second. Selector in Record Length functions to express the length of time used in recording on seismogram sheets. Current settings show at 1days / record. This states that for one sheet of seismogram paper can record for one day consisting of 24 hours.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 31. Front view of the selector


Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 32. Back rear of the selector


Figure 33 is a rear view of each recorder. There appear to be two fuse units (top right black and two round). There are two fuses that are used to function to secure each motor when suddenly there is an excessive voltage source. The fuse is capable of delivering a maximum current of 5A.
 
Figure 33. Rear view of Recorder
 
 
 
To be able to support the performance of a Earthquake Seismograph, a power supply is used. Figure 34 can be noted that it takes two power supply units with 220Volt input voltage and 12Volt output (yellow). 
 
This recorder has three input power supplies (+, Ground, and -), which serves to make the waves swing from positive and negative. In addition to the two power supply units, several 12 volt battery units (white) are also used to maintain the Earthquake Seismograph that can record earthquake vibrations even though the electric current has been cut off.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 34. Power Supply


3. Seismogram analysis

Earthquake Seismograph analysis is performed on seismogram paper. The results recorded from paper are analyzed based on primary, secondary, maximum amplitude, wavelength, magnitude, distance determination, and origin time determination. Examples of waveforms can be seen as shown in Figure 4.23.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 35. Recorded earthquake waves
 
 
 
In this practical work, analysis is limited by counting primary, secondary, duration, amplitude, and impulse waves. After the value is obtained, analysis of magnitude, direction of longitude, latitude, angle, from the location of the earthquake can be determined using existing software.
 

3.1 Determination of P Waves

The P wave is measured based on the time of the first wave. Calculation of time rests on the fault that shows the allocation of hours. In figure 36, the analysis is based at 09.00 because the earthquake occurred in the line which is one line below 09.00, this means that the recording of the earthquake occurred in the line 09.15. Because the earthquake occurred several faults before the fault at 09.15, we can measure the distance of the initial wave using a ruler on the basis of the distance is 1mm / sec.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 36. Earthquake position at 09:15
 
 
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 37. Analysis of the P wave
 
 
 
n figure 37, the P wave can be determined by subtracting the initial value which is 09:15:00 with the value obtained using a ruler which is 00:06:65.
.... [1]
 

3.2 Determining the S Wave

To determine the S wave, you can also use the same method as when determining the P wave.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 38. S-wave analysis
 
 
 

3.3 Determination of Amplitude

To measure the magnitude of the amplitude, the equipment used is the same as determining the P and S waves, the ruler. Taking the position to get the amplitude is the longest position of the wave either the P or S waves.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 39. Amplitude Analysis
 
 
 

3.4 Determine the Duration

To determine the duration of an earthquake, measurements can be made using a ruler from the beginning of the P wave to the end of the S wave.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 40. Duration Analysis
 
 
 

3.5 Determination of Impulses

Impulses are determined from P waves based on each of the Z, North-South, and East-West components. These impulses are useful for knowing the direction of an earthquake.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 41. Impulse analysis
 
 
 
In the yellow circle, it can be seen initially that the P wave is shaking and forming a wave towards the top. This wave has an amplitude that is 1 mm after being measured using a ruler. This result was written in the format 01.0 mm. The writing of this result is as follows:
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
 
As an assumption we have obtained the impulse values of the two components as follows:
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
If the impulse obtained data that shocks occur towards the top, then the value is placed in lines U, East and North. If the initial wave shock occurs downward, the value obtained is placed in the Down, South or West rows. After the impulse value of the three components is known, the next step is to enter into the software to get the direction from the source of the earthquake.
 

3.6 Use of OpenOffice Software

 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 42. Software Display
 
 
 

Look at the software in Figure 42, the third column is S-P which is the result of reducing the value of the P wave to the S wave. The results are obtained as follows:

This value is entered with the letter CNE, because when we analyze impulses, we get the value Up (written in C), North, and South. The data that has been obtained, is entered into the software as shown in Figure 43 below:

 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 43. Data entered
 
 
 
From the picture 43 the results obtained from Longitude (104.51), Latitude (10.00), Derjat (12.54), Magnitude (6.4 Richter) and Direction of the earthquake occurred in the Southwest direction of Banda Aceh City.
 

3.7 Seismometer Location

Seismometer Ranger SS-1 is placed on the rock surface in the mountain and wrapped in a box made of concrete shown in figure 44. This is done with the aim of protecting the sensor from local interference such as direct sliding. 
 
In figure 45 there are three seismometers placed in Horizontal and Vertical directions. Horizontal seismometer to detect East-West (EW) and North-South (NS) directions, and vertically to detect Up-Down (UD) directions.
 
Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 44. Seismometer location


Earthquake Seismograph Analog as Earthquake Instrumentation
Figure 45. Laying of a Seismometer
 
 
 
That is all I can give to you, I hope the writing Earthquake Seismograph as Earthquake Instrumentation can add references for all in the field of Earthquake Instrumentation.
 
 
 
Source:
Operating Instructions for Model SS-1 Ranger Seismometer, 1990.
http://www.sigana.web.id/index.php/gempa-bumi.html
http://www.kinemetrics.com/uploads/SS-1_Oblique8b.png
http://info.geonet.org.nz/download/attachments/952083/oturere_general.gif?api=v2
http://bmkg.go.id/BMKG_Pusat/Profil/Logo_BMKG.bmkg#ixzz3SAkr624Y
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/seismology/history/part03.php
http://www.china.org.cn/china/2010-12/03/content_21472907.htm
http://www.peigenesis.com/en/shop/part-information/MS3106E14S5S/CAN/EACH/211529.html#layout
http://penyeara.blogspot.com/2013/08/seismograf.html
http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2009/10/17/lp_seismogram_custom-4e8ca438cdfac79e9202a9b9866a16600776e166-s800-c15.jpg

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